The Sabeans appear in three places of the Old Testament. First, in the book of Job, the Sabeans attack and kill Job's servants, steal his livestock, and leave just one witness to tell Job about it (Job 1:13–15).
What do we know about the Sabeans?
The Sabeans show up again in prophesy. First, Isaiah foretells when the Israelites will conquer the Egyptians, Cushites, and Sabeans, who will all eventually acknowledge the God of the Israelites as the only true God. Isaiah calls the Sabeans "men of stature" (Isaiah 45:14).
Later, the prophet Joel identifies the Sabeans as a distant people to whom the Israelites will sell their slaves (Joel 3:8). This event is part of God's punishment of the people of Tyre and Sidon for opposing His children.
The Sabeans lived in a place identified as Sheba. Archeologists believe Sheba, also known as Marib, existed from 1200 BC to AD 275 and was known for its spices. In the Old Testament the Queen of Sheba, or Queen of the South, travelled to hear Solomon's wisdom and she gave him many riches (1 Kings 10). Though not specifically identified as such, she was likely a Sabean, meaning they were likely a wealthy people. Centuries later, Sheba collapsed in civil war and was then ruled by the Himyarites. The Sabeans no longer exist as a distinct people group.
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