Ultimately, God chose Israel to be the people from which the Savior would come—Jesus Christ. He first promised the Savior (Messiah) to Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden after they chose not to trust Him and then acted on that choice (Genesis 3). Later, God once again promised to bring salvation through Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (the fathers of the nation of Israel) in Genesis 12:1–3.
God did not require any of this and could have saved people in any manner He chose, but the Bible is clear that God had a plan all along to deliver a Messiah through His chosen people—the Jews.
So why Israel? Deuteronomy 7:7–9 says, "It was not because you were more in number than any other people that the LORD set his love on you and chose you, for you were the fewest of all peoples, but it is because the LORD loves you and is keeping the oath that he swore to your fathers, that the LORD has brought you out with a mighty hand and redeemed you from the house of slavery, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt. Know therefore that the LORD your God is God, the faithful God who keeps covenant and steadfast love with those who love him and keep his commandments, to a thousand generations."
Jesus is the central reason God chose Israel, for their own salvation, yes, but also for the salvation of all who would call on His Name (John 3:16).
God also chose to interact with the people of Israel so He could show His power through them, so they could go and tell others about Him, and so that His great care, action, and power would be made known. Israel produced leaders, kings, priests, prophets, and missionaries to the entire known world. The Israelites were successful at times, and at times failed. However, God's primary purpose to deliver a Savior, His Son Jesus, through the nation of Israel, was completed.
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