Because Rome at one time ruled nearly the entire known world, some use the term Revived Roman Empire to describe a coming world-wide government. The phrase does not appear in the Bible. However, the Bible does describe a powerful government that rises to power in the end times. According to some interpretations of Daniel and Revelation, the Revived Roman Empire is either a generic government system or a specific nation led by a ruler, centered in Rome, Turkey, or the Middle East.
The Revived Roman Empire is often associated with the fourth beast in Daniel 7. The ten-horned beast is "terrifying and dreadful and exceedingly strong" (Daniel 7:7). It is believed to be a prophetic image of the Roman Empire (Daniel 7:19–24). As Daniel watched, a little horn grew out of the ten horns (Daniel 7:8), which is representative of the Antichrist, who is thus somehow connected with the Roman Empire. Since the Roman Empire lost its power and identity in the fifth century, we expect it to be "revived" in some sense in order to fulfill end-times prophecy.
The Revived Roman Empire is also associated with the fifth and final kingdom mentioned in Daniel 2. Daniel 2 describes Nebuchadnezzar's dream of an image made of various metals and Daniel's subsequent interpretation. The image had iron legs and feet made partially from iron and partially from clay. The iron legs represent the Roman Empire and the dual-material feet represent the last world empire. That the feet share are partially made of iron may suggest the last world empire is somehow associated with the Roman Empire. The ten toes may link to the ten horns in Daniel 7:20, perhaps a ten-nation coalition led by a ruler in Rome.
In Revelation 13, a ten-horned beast comes from the sea. The ten horns of this beast connect it to the fourth beast in Daniel 7. The Revelation 13 beast is described as blasphemous, tyrannical, and absolute in its rule. It has global power bestowed by Satan. Interpreting the symbolism as references to a coming political empire or ruler, rather than a figure of prior history, is more easily done with Revelation 13.
As far as trying to determine what these prophesies mean and what nations may be involved and when these events will happen, Christians must be careful to not neglect our primary calling—to spread the gospel. We can read the signs of the times (see Matthew 16:3), but the future is not clear enough to us at this time to completely understand what these prophesies say.
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