The area where Iran is located present day was called Persia or Elam in the Bible and is part of several prophesies about the end times.
Iran as a country, which outright threatens Israel and is seeking nuclear power, may play a part in end times.
Elam, east of Babylon, west of Persia, and south of Media, was expected to be conquered, then regain power in Jeremiah 49:34–39. This happened in 596 BC when Babylon conquered Elam, then Cyrus the Great of Persia controlled the area before the Medo-Persian Empire conquered Babylon in 539 BC. This was in the time of Daniel, who later lived in Elam in Persia (Daniel 8:2). It is also the same area where Esther lived and where Nehemiah began his journey back to Jerusalem.
Persia ruled the area until Alexander the Great took over, fulfilling Daniel 8 prophesies. After that, the area changed hands—the Seleucids, Parthians, Sassanians, Romans, and Byzantines all ruled. In 1501, Iran as we know it, was founded.
As for the New Testament, people from that area were present in Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:9) where they were identified as Parthians, Medes, and Elamites.
As for the future, the inhabitants of the area now Iran will be part of the battle of Gog and Magog. Persia is identified as an ally of Magog, thought by some to be Russia (Ezekiel 38:5), along with Sudan, Turkey, Libya, and others. This army will attack Israel (Ezekiel 38:11), but God will intervene and destroy it (Ezekiel 39:4–7).
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