The Davidic covenant is a covenant that took place between King David and God, when King David made plans to build God a house of cedar. The kingdom of Israel had been blessed and was prospering, and David one day looked around at everything he had and realized that he, the King, was dwelling in a house of cedar, but God was still dwelling in a tent. The King shared his thoughts with the prophet, Nathan, who encouraged him to do what he planned (2 Samuel 7:1-3). Later that night, God spoke to Nathan, telling him to tell David that He did not want David to build Him a house of cedar—instead, He promised to build David a house. Metaphorically, this meant God would establish David's line. First, He would bless the kingdom of David's son, Solomon. He promised to be a father to Solomon, disciplining him, but also never forsaking him (2 Samuel 7:11-16). Secondly, he promised that David's throne would be "established forever" and in this we see the promised Messiah, Jesus Christ, who was a descendant of the house of David, and whose kingdom will be forever (Psalm 45:6-7; Psalm 89:3-4; Revelation 1:5-6).
The Davidic covenant is an unconditional covenant—that is, its fulfillment does not depend on David's actions, or the actions of any of the members of his household. Both David and Solomon committed grievous sins (2 Samuel 11:1-27; 1 Kings 11:4-8), and though these sins were displeasing and hurtful to God, He would still honor His promise to establish David's house eternally. God had purposed to do it, and He would accomplish His promise, despite the actions of men (2 Timothy 2:13).
Jesus Christ was called the Son of David, referring to the everlasting kingship of David's house, according to the Davidic covenant. The promise that David's house and throne would be established eternally is important because it is a prophecy concerning the coming Messiah—specifically, that He would come from the house of David (Matthew 21:9).
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