Christology is composed of the words Christ, referring to Jesus, and ology, meaning "the study of." The word Christology, therefore, deals with the study of Jesus Christ. In systematic theology, Christology is the area of theology that discusses issues related to Jesus based on the teachings of the Bible. It serves as one of three areas related to the study of Theology Proper, or the study of the Triune God, including Paterology (the study of God the Father) and Pneumatology (the study of the Holy Spirit). These areas of Christology include, but are not limited to, His eternal existence prior to His earthly life, prophecies related to Christ in the Old Testament, the humanity and deity of Christ, as well as His earthly birth, life, death, resurrection, ascension, future return, and eternal reign.
Prior to His earthly life, Jesus existed in eternity past as the second person of the Triune Godhead. He was with God in the beginning and was God (John 1:1). The Old Testament prophets predicted that the Jewish Messiah would come, yet be rejected and suffer (Isaiah 53). Jesus predicted both His death and resurrection (Matthew 20:17-19; 1 Corinthians 15). He also comforted His disciples regarding His ascension (Luke 24:46-53).
After the Gospel accounts, the book of Acts and other New Testament books focus on the teachings of Jesus and His future return. First Thessalonians 4:13-18 speaks specifically of an unknown, future time at which the dead in Christ will rise first, followed by all living believers immediately ascending into the air to be with Jesus forever.
Though many theologians debate the chronology and many aspects of the future, unfulfilled prophecies related to the return of Christ, the book of Revelation appears to teach that following this taking of believers to be with Jesus, seven years of tremendous judgment will occur, culminating in the return of Jesus to earth with His followers to defeat Satan and those with Him. At that time, Jesus will fulfill His role as the Davidic Messiah and reign from His throne in Jerusalem for 1,000 years; this is known as the millennial kingdom (Revelation 20:1-6). At the end of this time, one final rebellion will take place by Satan. Then there will be a final judgment followed by the creation of a new heavens, earth, and city where Jesus will reign with His people for eternity future.
Though many additional details regarding Christ can and have been studied, the above overview includes the main categories traditionally studied within Christology.
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